Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and German Chancellor Angela Merkel are followed by Russian President Vladimir Putin (L) and French President Emmanuel Macron outside the Vahdettin Mansion during a summit on Syria in Istanbul, Turkey, Oct. 27, 2018.

Hamidreza Azizi

Why Iran Did Not Attend the Europe-Russia-Turkey Summit on Syria

The leaders of Turkey, Russia, France and Germany met Oct. 27 in Istanbul for a summit to discuss the ongoing developments regarding the Syrian crisis. In a final statement issued after the summit, the four sides emphasized Syria’s sovereignty and territorial integrity as well as the necessity of continuing the fight against terrorism in the war-torn country. They also underlined the need for resolving the Syrian crisis through a “negotiated political process,”...