Iran

Hamidreza Azizi & Mostafa Najafi

Iranian-Turkish-Russian Triangle in Syria

Long before taking the form of modern nation-states, Iran, Russia, and Turkey had a long imperial history. All the three countries have in some periods experienced levels of Western influence, but none has been completely gone under the domination of the west and as such, the West has never recognized them as equal actors and independent centers of power in the international arena. During the Second World War, Turkey adopted a neutral stance; a position which was welcomed mostly ...